The total cultivated area amounts to 330,331 acres of which 1.2% concern annual crops, 2.74% vines, 16.19% other arboreal crops (mainly olive) and 69.15% meadows, pastures, family vegetable gardens and fallow. There are 4,972 farms operating in the prefecture as a whole.
The irrigated crops are limited to the areas of Palliki, the southern part of Kefalonia, Vlahata, Mousata, Skala, Kateleios and Tzanata. In these areas, most of the agricultural activity is concentrated, while the rest of the island’s surface serves the needs of the livestock sector.
The most important activities of the plant production sector are olive cultivation and viticulture.
Olive cultivation is the most important activity of the plant production of the primary sector of the economy of Kefalonia. A total of one million olive trees are cultivated and the total production of olive oil amounts to 2,000 tons per year. The varieties cultivated are local (40%), Koroneiki (30%), Simoteiki (10%) and Thiaki (15%). For olive oil, there are no production data of a branded product with particular reference, although it is a product that has been locally certified (Regulation EC 2081/92).
the second most important sector of crop production is viticulture, with a cultivated area of 9,068 acres. and annual wine production of 2,000 tons of must. Important production centers are being established in the area of Omala, the center of the OPAP Robola zone of Cephalonia, as well as in the area of Palliki, where viticulture continues to play an important role but has also accepted the biggest decline.
In Kefalonia & Ithaca islands, there are three quality wines produced in specific areas, two Controlled Designations of Origin (OPE) areas and one Designation of Origin of Superior Quality (OPAP). More specifically, these wines are the “Robola of Cephalonia OPAP”, the “Mavrodaphne of Cephalonia OPE” and the “Muscat white OPE” (production of sweet wines). There are also three recognized wines of Local Name (T.O.), the T.O. slopes of Enos (white-red), the “T.O. Metaxata” (red) and the T.O. mantzavinata (red-rosé-white), while the request for corresponding recognition in the category of T.O. of the produced wine of the region of Eleios-Pronnes (white) is under consideration. The vinification is done by the ten wineries of the island, among which the winery of the Agro-industrial Cooperative of Robola Producers has a prominent position, covering 75-80% of the production of Robola.
The agricultural sector of the communities around Enos is similar to those of the rest of the prefecture. Here, too, the main crops are the cultivation of olives, vines and cereals (mainly for animal feed). Data on the cultivated areas at community level exist only for the community of Omala and indicatively mentioned: 31.8 ha of annual crops (mainly olive trees) and 174.6 ha of Vines.